Works Cited Different Than Bibliography Meaning

Most everything written or published in the higher academy is cited. The citation of sources prevents plagiarism, helps a professor fact-check an essay or paper for accuracy, and can aid the student in finding information if they decide to return to a certain source in the future. Learning the importance of citing sources is something any and every student should learn wholeheartedly and always embrace because, at the college or university level, it is a fact of life.


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLES


However, with the overwhelming bombardment of information and terminology in higher education, it can be a challenge doing things the correct way – and can get very confusing. This certainly applies to a writing assignment requiring a student to cite the sources they have used, referred to or encountered in compiling information and writing an essay or research paper. A Works Cited page and Bibliography are perfect examples: the two are often used interchangeably, mean close to the same thing, yet have entirely different purposes, meanings, and implications.

The Bibliography

Bibliographies, which are mostly found at the end of a book or published an academic article, are a list of the books or other articles referred to in a scholarly work – and are not merely a simple paper, essay or research paper written by an undergraduate. Usually printed as an appendix, bibliographies provide an overview of what has been published on a topic. Some bibliographies are annotated, meaning they include a brief summary of each work’s contents and explain how it was relevant in writing about the subject of the paper. A bibliography is an ideal starting point for the student looking to conduct research on a specific topic or range of topics. However, some professors may require their students to make a list of all the sources that informed the student writing the paper – those that may have lead the student to other, more recent sources. In this case, a bibliography may be best. 

The Works Cited

The Works Cited, often referred to as the “Works Cited Page,” is a separate page at the end of a student’s essay or research paper; it lists the sources they used in the writing and completing their assignment – whether they used information in direct quotes, rephrased summaries, the incorporation of data and general information, like statistics. Whenever a student borrows legitimate information from any reputable source (anything that is not common knowledge: “the capital of Thailand is Bangkok”), that information needs to be cited in MLA style. This list should be alphabetized by authors’ last names – or by editors’ or translators’ names – and should have “Works Cited” as a centered heading. In many cases, one’s professor may read the student’s Works Cited page first to get a feel for the kind of effort put into the assignment. 


FOOTNOTES VS. ENDNOTES


Student, keep in mind! In the event, a student is not sure which exactly their professor prefers – works cited, bibliography or an annotated bibliography – that student should talk with their professor; rather than risk getting a low grade, it is best they inquire early on in getting an assignment.

Bibliography

The bibliography, placed at the end of your paper, is an alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. The word bibliography has many meanings, and if often used to describe all the works written on a particular subject. When you title this section of your paper, use one of these:

  • Selected Bibliography (if you list all of the sources you consulted in writing your paper)
  • Works Cited or References (if you list only the items you actually cited in your paper).

Contents of this page

Formatting your bibliography

While notes and bibliographies contain much of the same information, bibliographic form differs from note form in these ways:

  • Notes are numbered; bibliographies are alphabetized. The author's last name appears first (Smith, Betty) in a bibliography.
  • Notes use commas and parentheses to separate items; a bibliography uses periods. (Put one space—not two—after each period in a bibliographic entry.)
  • Notes indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter or article to which you referred.
  • The first line of each note is indented 5 spaces and subsequent lines return to the left margin. The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 5 spaces.

In either note or bibliographic form, if the author's name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author's last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order (the title of the book or article, for example) and use that to alphabetize the entry.

Sample bibliography

A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. (Don't use boxes around each entry, however.) The entries are the same as those used in the notes.

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, 20 April 2012.

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Bibliography entry: Book

1 author, first edition

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

1 author, later edition

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

1 author, reprinted book

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

2 authors

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

3 authors

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

More than 3 authors

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

No author

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Anthology with editors in place of authors

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Chapter in an edited collection

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Article

Article in a journal

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity." College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Book review

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Newspaper article

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Encyclopedia

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests that well-known encyclopedias should be cited in notes rather than in bibliographies. These examples demonstrate how to compose a bibliographic reference for encylopedia entries that are known to be written by a specific author and for entries by no known author.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Interview by writer of research paper

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.

Secondary source

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Performance or DVD

Live performance

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

DVD

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

Dissertation

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." PhD diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Lecture

Young, Morris. "What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?" Lecture for Survey of Asian American Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013.

Conference presentation

Roberts, Mary Louise. "The Public Practice of History in and for a Digital Age." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, New Orleans, January 3, 2013.

Government document

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Online Source

Online source that is identical to a print source

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Online newspaper

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Website

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

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